Long Island University C.W. Post Campus
C.W. Post Campus B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library

APA Citation Style
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (first printing), 2010
APA style guide to electronic references, 6th edition, 2012 (Undates under construction)

Follow these color codes:
Author(s) Date Title of Book Title of Article Title of Periodical
Volume Pages Place of Publication Publisher Other Information



Journal Article: paginated by issue, online and hardcopy [See the discussion of DOI in the notes below]

Devine, P. G., & Sherman, S. J. (1992). Intuitive versus rational

     judgment and the role of stereotyping in the human condition: Kirk

     or Spock?
Psychological Inquiry, 3(2), 153-159. http://dx.doi.org

     /10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13



Journal Article: paginated by volume, from a database or website without a DOI [See the discussion of DOI in the notes below]

Hodges, F. M. (2003). The promised planet: Alliances and struggles of

     the gerontocracy in American television science fiction of the 1960s.


     The Aging Male, 6, 175-182. Retrieved from http://www.informaworld

     .com/TheAgingMale



Magazine Article

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November/December). Star trek on the brain:

     Alien minds, human minds.
American Scientist, 86(6), 585.



Newspaper Article

Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes

     explore modern society using the world of Star trek.
Los Angeles

     Times,
pp. A3, A20-A22.

[Newspaper website that does not include page numbers. The square brackets show that this is a review.]
Ebert, R. (2009, May 6). [Review of the motion picture Star trek,

     produced by Paramount, 2009].
Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved from

     http://rogerebert.suntimes.com



Books

Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history

     of the future.
New York, NY: Pocket Books.

[Book with no author; see notes]
Star trek: Four generations of stars, stories, and strange new worlds.

     (1995). Radnor, PA: News America Publications.



Book Article or Chapter

James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according

     to Kirk and Spock.
In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic

     (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.



Encyclopedia Article

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In L. T. Lorimer et al. (Eds.), The

     encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.



ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star trek: The next

     generation: Conflicts between brothers.
Retrieved from ERIC

     database. (ED364932)



Websites: [see notes below]

Epsicokhan, J. (2004, February 20). Confessions of a closet trekkie.

     Retrieved October 12, 2009, from Jammer's Reviews website:

     http://www.jammersreviews.com/articles/confessions.php

[Page with a corporate author and the name of the website is the same as the name of the author.]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009, May 28). NASA

     astronaut watches new Star trek movie in space.
Retrieved from

     http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/behindscenes/star_trek

     .html

[Page with a corporate author and the name of the website is different from the name of the author.]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion

     Laboratory.
(2007, May 10). Mission could seek out Spock's home

     planet.
Retrieved from PlanetQuest: Exoplanet Exploration website:

     http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/news/planetVulcan.cfm

[Page with a no author.]
The Roddenberry legacy of human potential: If only, if only. (2007,

     October 24).
Retrieved January 7, 2009, from Star Trek Official Site

     website: http://www.startrek.com/startrek/view/news/editorials

     /article/2310913.html



Company and Industry Reports: from Hoovers, Mergent, Value Line, Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage, etc.

[Include the URL of the database's homepage instead of the complete link.]
Industry custom report: Advertising agencies. (2013, February 25).

     Retrieved from Hoover's website: http://subscriber.hoovers.com

     /H/home/index.html

[You have the option of using the database's name as the author instead of the publisher.]
Hoover's Inc. (2013, February 25). Industry custom report: Advertising

     agencies
.
Retrieved from http://subscriber.hoovers.com/H/home

     /index.html

[Report with no date.]
Microsoft Corporation profile. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2013, from

     Hoover's website: http://subscriber.hoovers.com/H/home

     /index.html

[Spreadsheet data.]
Microsoft: Quarterly income statement [Data file]. (2013). Retrieved

     from
Hoover's website: http://subscriber.hoovers.com/H/home

     /index.html

[A company's annual report, 10k, etc.]
Microsoft Corporation. (2012). 2012 annual report. Retrieved from

     Mergent Online website: http://www.mergentonline.com

     /basicsearch.php



Wiki

Star trek planet classifications. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 7,

     2009,
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek_planet

     _classifications



Blog

Zompist. (2009, September 30). Star wars: Hope not so new anymore

     [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://zompist.wordpress.com

     /2009/09/30/star-wars-hope-not-so-new-anymore/



Internet Video

Crusade2267. (2006, November 02). For the uniform: One fan's

     obsession with Star trek, part 1
[Video file]. Retrieved from http://

     www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul5q4PTME-M



PowerPoint Presentation

Oard, D. W. (2001). Bringing Star trek to life: Computers that speak and

     listen
[PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from University of

     Maryland TerpConnect
website: http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~oard

     /papers/cpsp118t.ppt


Parenthetical References

The sources that you use should be cited in the text of your paper, either in a parentheses or as part of the text itself:

During the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation (Hodges, 2000).

Hodges (2000) discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.

In a 2000 article, Hodges discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.

The references above refer to the entire source in a general way. If you are referring to a specific part of the source - or quoting exactly - include the specific page number(s) of that part:

(Hodges, 2000, p. 179)

(Devine & Sherman, 1992, pp. 156-157)

(National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2007, para. 3)   [document has a corporate author]

("The Roddenberry Legacy," 2007, paras. 5-6)   [document has no author; see notes]

(Star Trek: Four Generations, 1995, pp. 63-66)   [document has no author; see notes]

("Star Trek Planet Classifications," n.d., Other Classes section, para. 2)   [document has no author; see notes]

Sources with three through five authors:

(Kirk, Spock, McCoy, & Scott, 1966, p. 1701)   [for the first time you cite it]

(Kirk et al., 1966, p. 1701)   [for all other times you cite it]

Sources with six authors or more:

(Picard et al., 1987, p. 1701d)   [for every time you cite it, but include up to seven authors in the full reference. If there are more, include the first six, followed by an ellipse (...) followed by the last of the names.]


Notes

  • Doublespace all lines. Indent the second and following lines 5 to 7 spaces or one half inch. Use one inch margins and Times New Roman 12-point font. Do not justify.
  • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by the author's last name, letter by letter, interfiling books, articles, etc. Items with no author are interfiled in this list by the first significant word of the title.
  • Use only the initials of the authors' first (and middle) names.
  • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date. Note that some authors on the internet use a screen name instead of their real name and that an organization can also be an author (a "corporate author"). See examples under books, websites, and blogs.
  • Article titles, book titles, and webpage titles: capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle. (Capitalize all significant words of periodical titles and website titles.)
  • If the journal (or magazine) begins each issue with page one (paginated by issue), include the issue number (not italicized) if one is provided. If the journal continues the page numbering from issue to issue throughout the volume (paginated by volume), do not include it.

  • DOI: Digital Object Identifier is a string of numbers (and/or letters) assigned to individual journal articles as well as to some other publications.
    • Include the DOI for articles that you retrieve both online and in hardcopy.
    • The database may provide the DOI as part of the citation, or you may have to look at the top or bottom of the first page of the article to find it.
    • NEW! When the 6th edition of the Publication Manual was published in 2010, it originally indicated that the DOI should be preceded by "doi:" (ex. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13). Your readers could then go to http://www.doi.org and use the DOI to locate the article. In 2011, it was decided that the DOI should be preceded by the complete URL, "http://dx.doi.org/" (ex. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13). Both formats are still acceptable. Use the one that your source uses.
    • If you retrieve an article from a website or database, and it does not have a DOI, include the URL of the journal's homepage at the publisher's website (not the direct link to the article). You may have to use a search engine to find this website. If the URL to the journal's homepage is too long and complicated, use the URL of the publisher's homepage. This is a judgment call that you will have to make. Do not include the database's name or URL instead (unless you are accessing a dissertation, an ERIC document, or an older article from JSTOR).
    • Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, and it can be left out.
  • If you retrieve an online magazine, newspaper, book, or encyclopedia from one of our databases, include the DOI or URL as discussed above and as shown under the examples for journals.

  • Websites:
    • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date. Note that some authors on the internet use a screen name instead of their real name and that an organization can also be an author (a "corporate author").
    • If possible, include the month and day that the page was created.
    • If a webpage is likely to change over time, such as a wiki or personal website, include the date that you looked at the page. Webpages that provide journal articles, books, or reports from publishing companies, professional associations, and government agencies are less likely to change and do not require retrieval dates. This is also a judgment call that you will have to make. The format for including a retrieval date comes from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2007.
    • If the date the page was created is not given, use (n.d.). See example under wiki.
    • If the name of the website is the same as the name of the author, you do not need to include it a second time. This is especially likely to happen with the websites for government agencies and professional associations (see the examples for National Aeronautics and Space Administration). If the name of the website is obvious from the URL, you do not need to include it (another judgment call).
    • If the URL does not fit on one line, divide it before any punctuation marks (except for the "http://").
    • If you are citing the web version of a hardcopy source, format it the same way that you would the hardcopy source and include the relevant retrieval information.
    • The example for citing a PowerPoint presentation is adapted from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2007.

  • Parenthetical References:
    • If there is no author, use the first few words of the title. Unlike citations in the reference list, capitalize all significant words. Article, chapter, and webpage titles are placed in quotation marks. Book, periodical, report, and brochure titles are placed in italics. Note that an organization can also be an author (a "corporate author"). (Also note that a webpage title may be italicized in the reference list at the end even though it is in quotation marks here.)
    • If two authors have the same last name, include the first initial(s).
    • Use only the year, even if the full citation in the reference list includes the month and day. If you cite the same source a second time in the same paragraph, you do not need to mention the year a second time.
    • If there are no page numbers, you can count the paragraph numbers or list the name of a section or leave this information out if neither of these is practical.

  • The rules concerning a title within a title are not displayed above in order to avoid confusing people. In these examples, Star trek would be italicized if it appears in the non-italicized title of an article and not italicized if it appears in the italicized title of a book (reverse italicization). See the example for Ebert under newspaper.
  • A little bit of additional information is available on the official website, APA Style.org.
  • For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual. NEW! The APA style guide to electronic references (2012) states: "If you cannot find the reference example you need in the Publication Manual, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. Sometimes you may need to combine elements of more than one reference format" (p. 2). If you are still unsure, Timothy McAdoo (2009), on the official APA Style website, discusses The Flexibility of APA Style:
    Sometimes it's okay to color outside the lines. Although the stylistic guidelines in the Publication Manual are meant to ensure consistency within scientific writing, we also recognize the importance of a writer's good judgment. The trick is knowing when it's okay to do your own thing. It's even trickier when you know someone may be reading your paper with a red pen in hand!... If you've mastered the fine points of APA Style throughout a manuscript, your choices will be recognized as careful decisions, not oversights. So be sure to display your in-depth knowledge of APA Style in all other areas of your paper.

  • Printable version of this page (2 page Microsoft Word document)

  • Other Styles


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Robert Delaney, 4/13/14
robert.delaney@liu.edu

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