Long Island University C.W. Post Campus
C.W. Post Campus B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library

Chicago Citation Style
The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition
Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th Edition

Follow these color codes:
Author(s) Date Title of Book / Website Title of Article / Webpage Title of Periodical / Blog
Volume Pages Place of Publication Publisher / Database Other Information



Journal Article -- hardcopy

Cantor, Paul A. 2000. "Shakespeare in the Original Klingon: Star Trek

          and the End of History." Perspectives on Political Science 29 (3):

          158-66.


Journal Article -- from a database or website -- with a DOI

Devine, Patricia G., and Steven J. Sherman. 1992. "Intuitive Versus

          Rational Judgment and the Role of Stereotyping in the Human

          Condition: Kirk or Spock?" Psychological Inquiry 3 (2): 153-59.

          Accessed March 19, 2013. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13.


Journal Article -- from a database -- without a DOI but with a persistent URL

Hodges, F. M. 2003. "The Promised Planet: Alliances and Struggles of

          the Gerontocracy in American Television Science Fiction of the

          1960s." Aging Male 6 (3): 175-82. Accessed March 19, 2013. http://

          search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=

          12483037&site=ehost-live.


Journal Article -- from a database -- without a DOI or persistent URL

Roberts, Robin. 2001. "Performing Science Fiction: Television,

          Theater, and Gender in Star Trek: The Experience." Extrapolation

          42 (4): 340-56. Accessed March 19, 2013. Literature Resource

          Center (A82469996).


Journal Article -- from a website -- without a DOI

Coppa, Francesca. 2008. "Women, Star Trek, and the Early

          Development of Fannish Vidding." Transformative Works and

          Cultures 1. Accessed March 19, 2013. http://journal

          .transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/44/64.





Book -- hardcopy

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. "Star Trek" Chronology: The

          History of the Future. New York: Pocket Books.


Book -- from a database or website

Follow the format shown above, but add the appropriate information (access date and DOI, URL, or database name with identification number) as shown in the examples for Journal Articles.


Book -- Kindle, Nook, etc.

Anijar, Karen. 2000. Teaching toward the 24th Century: "Star Trek"

          as Social Curriculum. New York: Falmer. Kindle edition.





Book Article or Chapter -- hardcopy

James, Nancy E. 1988. "Two Sides of Paradise: The Eden Myth

          According to Kirk and Spock." In Spectrum of the Fantastic,

          edited by Donald Palumbo, 219-223. Westport, CT: Greenwood.


Book Article or Chapter -- from a database or website

Follow the format shown above, but add the appropriate information (access date and DOI, URL, or database name with identification number) as shown in the examples for Journal Articles.





Encyclopedia Article -- well-known or alphabetically arranged encyclopedias or dictionaries

Do not include these in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text (see examples below).


Encyclopedia Article -- hardcopy -- lesser-known encyclopedias or encyclopedias that are not arranged alphabetically (treated the same as book articles or chapters)

Barr, Marleen S. 2005. "Science Fiction." In New Dictionary of the

          History of Ideas, edited by Maryanne Cline Horowitz, 5:2188-91.

          Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons.


Encyclopedia Article -- from a database or website -- lesser-known encyclopedias or encyclopedias that are not arranged alphabetically

Follow the format shown above, but add the appropriate information (access date and DOI, URL, or database name with identification number) as shown in the examples for Journal Articles.





Newspaper Article -- hardcopy or website

Do not include these in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text (see examples below).


Newspaper Article -- from a database

Di Rado, Alicia. 1995. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore

          Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles

          Times, March 15. Accessed April 10, 2013. ProQuest (293089200).

If the database provides a DOI or persistent URL, use that instead of the database name and identification number (see the examples for Journal Articles). Note that the month and day are separated from the year. Do not include the page numbers. However, the newspaper's magazine section and weekend supplements should be treated as if they were regular magazines, so the page numbers (if available) should be included.





Magazine Article -- hardcopy or website

Do not include these in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text (see examples below).


Magazine Article -- from a database

Marks, John. 2011. "Beethoven vs Star Trek." Stereophile, December,

          51-57. Accessed April 21, 2013. General OneFile (A299639194).

If the database provides a DOI or persistent URL, use that instead of the database name and identification number (see the examples for Journal Articles). Note that the month (and day if there is one) is separated from the year.





Webpage -- with a person as the author

Batchelor, David Allen. 2009. "The Science of Star Trek." National

          Aeronautics and Space Administration. Accessed April 24, 2013.

          http://www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/features/star_trek.html.


Webpage -- with an organization as the author

NASAJPL (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jet

          Propulsion Laboratory). 2007. "Mission Could Seek out Spock's

          Home Planet." PlanetQuest: Exoplanet Exploration. Accessed

          March 15, 2010. http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/news

          /planetVulcan.cfm.

If the organization has a long name, create an abbreviation for it and begin the reference with that, followed by the organization's full name in parentheses.


Webpage -- with no author (begin with the title of the webpage)

"The Roddenberry Legacy of Human Potential: If Only, If Only." (2007).

          Star Trek Official Site. Accessed January 7, 2009. http://www

          .startrek.com/startrek/view/news/editorials/article/2310913.html.


Webpage -- with a modification date (and no author)

"Undeveloped Star Trek projects." (2011). Memory Alpha: The Star

          Trek Wiki. Last modified January 5. Accessed April 24, 2013.

          http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/Undeveloped_Star_Trek

          _projects.

Note that the month and day are separated from the year.


Webpage -- with no date (use the access date; do not use n.d. with websites)

Josh Briggs. (2013). "Top 10 Star Trek Technologies That Actually

          Came True." HowStuffWorks. Accessed April 24. http://www

          .howstuffworks.com/10-star-trek-technologies.htm.

Note that the month and day are separated from the year.





Blog -- on its own website

Epsicokhan, Jamahl. 2004. "Confessions of a Closet Trekkie."

          Jammer's Reviews (blog), February 20. Accessed April 23, 2013.

          http://www.jammersreviews.com/articles/confessions.php.

Note that the month and day are separated from the year.


Blog -- part of a larger website

O'Rourke, Meghan. 2009. "Spock Is from Mars, Kirk Is from Venus." XX

          Factor: What Women Really Think (blog), Slate, May 12.

          Accessed April 23, 2013. http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor

          /2009/05/12/star_treks_genderbending_history.html.

Note that the month and day are separated from the year.


Blog -- comment or reply

Rachael. 2009. Comment on Epsicokhan, Jamahl. 2004. "Confessions

          of a Closet Trekkie." Jammer's Reviews (blog), August 5

          (2:39 p.m.). Accessed April 23, 2013. http://www.jammersreviews

          .com/articles/confessions.php.

Include the (time) if available. Note that the month and day are separated from the year.





Parenthetical References

The sources that you use should be cited in the text of your paper, either in parentheses or as part of the text itself:

During the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation (Hodges 2003, 176).

Hodges (2003, 176) discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.

In a 2003 article, Hodges (176) discussed how, during the turbulent 1960s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation.


Two authors:
(Kirk and Spock 2013, 47)

Three authors:
(Kirk, Spock, and McCoy 2013, 47)

Four or more authors:
(Kirk et al. 2013, 47)
But include all of the authors in the reference list.

Corporate author:
(NASAJPL 2007, 47)
Create an abbreviation for long names.

No author:
("Roddenberry Legacy" 2007, 47)
Use the first few words to shorten the title, excluding initial articles. Place the title in italics or quotation marks (or neither) the same way that you would in the reference list.

No page numbers:
(Coppa 2008, para. 2.16)
("Undeveloped" 2011, under "1970s Series")

With short documents posted as a single, scrolling webpage, no page numbers are needed.

No date:
(Kirk, n.d., 47)
Do not use this for webpages. Use the date that you looked at the webpage.

Multivolume book:
(Kirk 2013, 3:47)


Parenthetical References -- Special Cases

Encyclopedia Article:
If a well-known encyclopedia or dictionary is arranged alphabetically, do not include it in the reference list. Cite it only in the parenthetical reference in the text. Include only the title of the encyclopedia, the edition (unless it is the first), the title of the article, and the author (if there is one). Use s.v. before one word titles and s.vv. before multiword titles. Note that none of the words in the article title are capitalized unless they are proper nouns.

Hardcopy:
(The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "astronomy")

From a database or website:
For well-known online encyclopedias, include the date of publication, modification, or access; and the DOI, URL, or shortened URL.
(Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Academic ed., s.v. "astronomy," by Michael Wulf Friedlander, accessed March 10, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/40047/astronomy)

(Wikipedia, s.vv. "timeline of Star Trek," last modified February 5, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Star_Trek)

Articles from lesser-known encyclopedias or encyclopedias that are not arranged alphabetically should be treated the same as book articles or chapters and should be included in the reference list.


Newspaper Article:
Newspaper articles viewed on paper, microfilm, and websites should not be included in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text. Include only the author, article title, newspaper title, date, and - for websites - the date you looked at it. Do not include the page numbers or URL. If you incorporate some of the citation information into your text, then only the remaining information needs to be included in the parentheses.

(Sarah Lyall, "To Boldly Go Where Shakespeare Calls," New York Times, January 27, 2008, accessed April 10, 2013)

However, the newspaper's magazine section and weekend supplements should be treated as if they were regular magazines, so the page numbers (if available) should be included - but only the specific pages that you used, not the page range of the entire article.


Magazine Article:
Magazine articles viewed on paper, microfilm, and websites should not be included in the reference list. Cite them only in the parenthetical references in the text. Include only the author, article title, magazine title, date, specific pages that you used (not the page range of the entire article), and - for websites - the date you looked at it. Do not include the URL. If you incorporate some of the citation information into your text, then only the remaining information needs to be included in the parentheses.

(John Marks, "Beethoven vs Star Trek," Stereophile, December 2011, 53, accessed April 21, 2013)


Notes

  • UNDER CONSTRUCTION
  • There are two different Chicago Styles. The one shown above is for a Reference List which is starting to become the more common one. See the printed manual for the other.
  • For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of the manual or Chicago's official website for a list of frequently asked questions about "Documentation" and other aspects of Chicago style.

  • Other Styles


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Robert Delaney, 5/7/13
robert.delaney@liu.edu

Long Island University LIU Post Library Homepage